The Effects of Different Application Times of Broadleaf Herbicides on Winter Wheat

Authors

1 PhD Student of agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 PhD Student of genetic and Breeding, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

The Effects of Different Application Times of Broadleaf Herbicides on Winter Wheat
 
Sayed Komeil Sayed Shourbalal*1 And Lida Hashemi2
1-PhD Student of agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2-PhD Student of genetic and Breeding, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
 
* Corresponding author email: komeil_shourbalal@hotmail.com
 
               Received:                                                                                   Accepted:
 
ABSTRACT
To Investigate the effects of different application times of broadleaf herbicides on winterwheat, a study was carried out (2015-16) in research farm of Islamic Azad University- Arak Branch as split plot experiment in randomized complete blocks design with twelve treatments and three replications. Main treatments were 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), no herbicide, tribenuron-methyl, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + tribenuron-methyl and subplots were time of using herbicides at initial establishment, tillering and start of stem elongation. Studied traits were the number of grains per spike (NGS), number of leaves per plant (NLP), spike’s dry weight (SDW), total dry weight (TDW) and grain yield (GY). According to the results, the highest GY (5.52 t ha−1) was obtained from 2,4-D at start of stem elongation whereas the treatment of no herbicide at initial establishment had the lowest yield (4.12 t ha−1). Also, the highest NGS (52.67) was produced by using of 2,4-D application at start of stem elongation which was not different from application 2,4-D at two other times. The lowest NGS (41) was belonging to no herbicide treatment.
Keywords: 2,4-D, Tribenuron methyl, Tillering, Grain yield, Winter wheat
 

Keywords


       
   

                 Research on Crop Ecophysiology                                  Vol.12/2, Issue 2 (2017), Pages: 108 -  114

 

 

 
 

Original Research

 
 

 

 

 

The Effects of Different Application Times of Broadleaf Herbicides on Winter Wheat

 

Sayed Komeil Sayed Shourbalal*1 And Lida Hashemi2

1-PhD Student of agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2-PhD Student of genetic and Breeding, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

 

* Corresponding author email: komeil_shourbalal@hotmail.com

 

               Received:                                                                                   Accepted:

 

ABSTRACT

To Investigate the effects of different application times of broadleaf herbicides on winterwheat, a study was carried out (2015-16) in research farm of Islamic Azad University- Arak Branch as split plot experiment in randomized complete blocks design with twelve treatments and three replications. Main treatments were 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), no herbicide, tribenuron-methyl, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + tribenuron-methyl and subplots were time of using herbicides at initial establishment, tillering and start of stem elongation. Studied traits were the number of grains per spike (NGS), number of leaves per plant (NLP), spike’s dry weight (SDW), total dry weight (TDW) and grain yield (GY). According to the results, the highest GY (5.52 t ha−1) was obtained from 2,4-D at start of stem elongation whereas the treatment of no herbicide at initial establishment had the lowest yield (4.12 t ha−1). Also, the highest NGS (52.67) was produced by using of 2,4-D application at start of stem elongation which was not different from application 2,4-D at two other times. The lowest NGS (41) was belonging to no herbicide treatment.

Keywords: 2,4-D, Tribenuron methyl, Tillering, Grain yield, Winter wheat

 

Introduction

Wheat (Triticun aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereals which are cultivated in wide range of climates, soils, and elevations (Bus huk, 1998). Farmers spend a lot of money to control weeds because of problems such as competition for resources which prevents plant’s access to resources and then reduces production and increases costs. Losses from weeds reach to about 70- 80%. Hence, weed control is recognized as an essential step in all crop production systems (Zimdal, 1999). The amount of farmers’ financial loss shows the importance of this subject (Kropff and Spitterst, 1991). Chemical control has been used for centuries to control or eliminate weeds, and despite some environmental problems caused by the use of these compounds are still considered as one of the important part of integrated management.

Due to low diversity of registered broad leaved herbicides and different herbicides which are used in various regions, introducing new herbicides is very important. Effective methods for delaying herbicide resistance are rotating common herbicide and mixed herbicides with different effect mechanisms. Although acetolactate synthase (ALS) herbicides are very efficient for controlling weeds, but unfortunately resistance to these herbicides occurs faster than other groups (Beckie, 2007). The most frequent broadleaf herbicides in recent years are tribenuron methyl, 2-4-D and bromoxynil. Considering the efficiency of tribenuron-methyl and farmers desire for this herbicide, it will replace two other herbicides. Sulfonylurea is a class of herbicides which are used to control broadleaf weeds and grasses. Tribenuron-methyl is from this chemical group. The most important specific of this herbicide is its high bio-activity and as a result, it is consumed at very low levels with a wide range of action. The use of these herbicides in various crops varies from 2 to 75 grams of active ingredient per hectare. These values are 25 times lower than other common herbicides (Russell et al., 2002).

Auxin-like herbicides are the first selective organic herbicides which made a revolution in modern agriculture. 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) are from this group. Selective control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops has made these herbicides the most important herbicides (Kraehmere et al., 2014). In this study, the effect of various application times of tribenuron methyl, 2,4-D and mixture of them was evaluated on agronomical properties and yield of winter wheat. The goal of study was realizing the best application time of the best herbicides with minimal damage to crop.

 

Materials and methods

The study was carried out in research farm of Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch (49°45’E, 34°05’N, 1708m) in 2015-16. Region has a semi-arid climate according to De Martonne classification with average precipitation and temperature of 320.2mm and 13.8°C. The experiment was conducted as split plots in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main treatments were application of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), no herbicide, tribenuron-methyl, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) + tribenuron-methyl and subplot treatments were time of using herbicides at initial establishment, tillering and start of stem elongation. Farm which was fallow wed in the year before the experiment was prepared using plough and Rau cyclotiller. According to soil analysis results, soil texture was sandy loam with 19% clay,24% silt, 57% sand, pH=7.0, EC=3.4ds, and 0.91% organic matter. Experimental plots were 6×2.2m. Seeds of Alvand cultivar (pedigree 1-27-6275/CF1770) were cultivated manually at 9-11-2015. Herbicides properties are presented in Table1.

The first irrigation was done right after cultivation. The other irrigations were carried out according to plant requirements and precipitation amount, mostly by 7 to 10 days’ intervals. Weeds were controlled using back sprayer. First and last rows plus 0.5 meter of each line were considered as margins. The number of grains per spike (NGS), number of leaves per plant (NLP), spike’s dry weight (SDW), total dry weight (TDW) and grain yield (GY) were measured at harvest. To measure NLP and NGS, ten plants were harvested randomly. To measure SDW, 20 spikes were selected randomly using a 1-meter quadrat frame, and dried by oven (75°C) for 72 hours. TDW consists of leaves and stem dry weights. GY of each plot was weighed and reported as tons per hectare. Obtained data were analyzed using MSTAT-C program and means were compared using Duncan’s multiple ranges test at 5% probability level. Graphs were drawn using Excel program.

 

Results and discussion

Number of grains per spike

 Spray time had significant effect (p<0.05) on grain number at physiological maturing (Table2). Mean comparison results showed that the highest NGS was belong to 2,4-D at start of stem elongation (52.67) whereas no herbicide treatment had the lowest NGS (41) (table4). Martin et al. (1990) observed that application of Dicamba + 2,4-D in three leaves, tillering and mid-pregnancy stages reduced wheat yield by 21%. Application of 2,4-D and Bromoxynil in three leaves, formation of fourth inter-node and flowering stages reduced efficiency of crop whereas using them at tillering and dough stages didn’t affect grain yield (Montazeri and KhabazSaberi, 1993). Herbicide type and interaction of herbicide and spraying time didn’t affect NGS at maturity (Table2).

Table 1.  herbicides properties

General Name

Brand

 Name

Chemica Group

Action Type

Crops

Application Time

Application Amount

(Per Hectare)

Formulation

Ld50 (mg/kg)

tribenuron methyl

 

Granstar

sulfonyl urea

Acetolactate synthase (ALS)

wheat

spikely to late tilleing (wheat)

20g

75%df

5000

2,4-D

U-46 Difluid

phenoxies

synthetic auxins

wheat, barley, rice, corn

5-7 leaves tillering to stem elongation

2lit

72%sl

369-764

 

Table 2. variance analysis results of studied traits

 

S.O.V

 

df

Mean of Squares

Number of seeds per spike

Number of leaves

Spike

dry weight

Total dry weight

Yeild

Replication   

2

738.361ns

35.361*

0.581ns

1.497ns

8.668ns

Herbicide

3

142.843ns

4.296ns

0.322ns

13.917ns

0.942ns

Error A

6

493.620

6.769

0.278

3.618

7.359

Spraying Time

2

12.028*

1.028ns

0.336ns

17.340*

0.794**

Herbicide*Spraying  Time

6

0.731ns

2.657ns

0.457ns

7.27ns

0.021ns

Error B

16

2.097

1.625

0.875

3.471

0.054

C.V. (%)

 

3.08

17.65

28.53

16.57

4.93

 

 

Number of leaves per plant

 According to the results, herbicide type and application time didn’t affect NLP significantly (Table2). Mean comparison results showed that the highest NLP (8.66) was belonging to 2,4-D + tribenuron-methyl application at start of stem elongation (Table4). Competition of weeds with crops prevents the formation and growth of yield components. Knowing the most sensitive component which is affected by competition, can lead to recognition of sensitive stages of plant growth and therefore determining the best time for controlling weeds (Varshney et al., 2012).

Spike dry weight

 Appropriate timing for using herbicides is to maximize weeds elimination and minimize negative effect on crops. The most important reason is the change in the physiology of crops which occurs at the time of transition from vegetative phase to reproductive phase. At this time plants are more sensitivity to herbicides which can lead to yield reduction (Nice et al., 2003). According to the results, herbicide type and application time didn’t affect this trait (Table2). This shows that spraying at initial establishment, tillering and start of stem elongation didn’t have negative effects on SDW. Using herbicide at inappropriate time causes stress in plant and reduces its tolerance. Thus, timely use of herbicide controls weeds, doesn’t damage crops and also prevents waste of money and environmental pollution (Rodenburg and Johnson, 2009).

Table 3. Mean comparison results of studied traits

Treatment

number of seeds per spike

Number of leaves

Spike

dry weight

Total dry weight

Yeild

H1 2,4-D

51.33a

6.22a

3.05a

10.22b

5.13a

H2 Control treatment

42.11a

7.33a

3.48a

11.24ab

4.37a

H3 Tribenuron-methyl

45.67a

7.78a

3.37a

12.99a

4.56a

H4 Mix 2,4-D + Tribenuron-methyl

48.78a

7.56a

3.22a

10.52b

4.70a

T1 primary deployment

46b

7.50a

3.27a

9.85b

4.45c

T2 Tillering

46.92ab

7.25a

3.45a

11.88a

4.67b

T3 Stemming

48a

6.92a

3.12a

11.99a

4.96a

 there is no significant difference between means of each column with at least one similar letter according to Duncan’s test p<0.05)

Table 4. Mean comparison results of studied traits under interaction effect of treatments

Herbicide

Spraying time

number of seeds per spike

Number of leaves

Spike dry weight

Total dry weight

Yeild

2,4-D

Primary deployment

50.33ab

6a

2.57a

10.30c

4.80bcd

2,4-D

Tillering

51ab

5.67a

3.43a

9.28c

5.08b

2,4-D

Stemming

52.67a

7a

3.14a

10.62c

5.52a

Control treatment

primary deployment

41g

8a

3.97a

9.63c

4.12f

Control treatment

Tillering

41.67fg

7.33a

3.28a

12.20bc

4.34ef

Control treatment

Stemming

43.67ef

6.67a

3.19a

11.87bc

4.67cde

Tribenuron-methyl

primary deployment

45e

8a

3.11a

9.52c

4.39ef

Tribenuron-methyl

Tillering

46de

7.33a

3.78a

13.87ab

4.57cde

Tribenuron-methyl

Stemming

46de

8a

3.22a

15.59a

4.72b-e

Mix 2,4-D + Tribenuron-methyl

primary deployment

47.67cd

8a

3.41a

9.97c

4.48def

Mix 2,4-D + Tribenuron-methyl

Tillering

49bc

8.66a

3.23a

11.72bc

4.69b-e

Mix 2,4-D + Tribenuron-methyl

Stemming

49.67bc

6a

2.92a

5a

4.94bc

there is no significant difference between means of each column with at least one similar letter according to Duncan’s test (p<0.05)

Total dry matter

 Variance analysis results showed that herbicide type and interaction of herbicide and spraying time didn’t affect TDW at maturity (Table 2). Spray time significantly affected TDW at maturity (Table 2). The highest dry weights were belonged to elongation and tillering (11.99g and 11.88g, respectively. Table 3). Considering the time of yield and yield components formation, using herbicides in terminal developmental stages is only waste of money and has little efficiency (Auskalins and Kadrys, 2006). Mean comparison results showed that the highest TDW was obtained from application of Tribenuron-methyl at start of stem elongation (15.59g) and Tribenuron-methyl at tillering stage (13.78g) (Table4). Tavassoli et al. (2009) observed that using Tribenuron-methyl at tillering didn’t have negative effects on winter wheat and concluded this time is the best spraing time. According to Baghestani et al., 2007 herbicede application flowering, reduced grain number slightly, but at maturity, wheat was not damaged considerably which is in agreement with current study.

Grain yield

 Variance analysis results (Table2) showed that spraing time affected GY at maturity (p<0.05). Mean comparison results showed that the highest GY (5.52 t ha−1) was obtained from application of 2,4-D at start of stem elongation. This indicates that appropriate time and type of herbicide application reduces the competition between weed and crop. The lowest GY (4.12 t ha−1) was belong to no herbicide treatment at initial establishment (Table4). Results of Wicks et al. (2003) showed that application of 2,4-D at 2 and 4 leaves stages reduced wheat yield by 20%, and combine application of 2,4-D + Banvel49% EC eliminated wide range of broadleaf weeds before damaging main crop (wheat). Other studies had similar results (Norsworthy and Fredrick, 2005; Tanji and Regher, 1988). In this study, GY was not affected by herbicide type and interaction of herbicide and spray time (Table2).

 

 

Figure. Grain yield of autumn wheat (t ha−1)

 

Conclusion

Field studies showed that application of herbicides at inappropriate times caused stress in crop and reduced the yield. Therefore, timely application of herbicides controls weeds without any reduction in crop yield and also prevents waste of money and environment pollution. Results of this study showed that the best combination of herbicide and spray time for maximizing GY was 2,4-D at start of stem elongation (5.52 t ha−1). According to the results, the highest NGS was obtained by application 2,4-D at start of stem elongation (52.67), 2,4-D at tillering and 2,4-D at initial establishment. Spraying at initial establishment, tillering and start of stem elongation didn’t have negative effects on SDW.

 

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