The Effect of the Yellow Rust Caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks. (PST) on the Characteristics of the Cluster and Yield of Wheat Cultivars

10.30486/roce.2018.545279

Abstract

Abstracts
The present study was carried out in order to investigate the rate of negative effect of wheat yellow rust pathogens on characteristics related to the cluster and yield of wheat cultivars in climatic conditions of north of Khuzestan. The study was carried out using a split plot design in randomized complete blocks with three replications. In this design, the conditions of presence and absence of wheat yellow rust were considered as the main factors, and the most important cultivars planted in the region including Dez and Chamran were considered as the secondary factors. The results of variance analysis indicated that both group of factors had a significant effect on all characteristics except for the cluster length on which yellow rust had no significant effect due to its reliance on genotype. It was also concluded that the mutual effect was only significant on the grain yield at a level of 5%. Chamran and Dez cultivars with average of 503.33 and 4808.33 kg/hectare had the highest and the lowest yield, respectively. Yellow rust disease had a severely negative effect on all characteristics except for the cluster length, which finally led to a decrease of 53.92% in the yield compared to appropriate conditions. Given the moisture rate of the weather as the most important factor for the disease spread, it is hoped that the losses caused by yellow rust can be prevented by utilizing suitable managerial methods and most importantly irrigation schedule program and applying appropriate pesticides, which the results indicated that can be justified in regard to economy.
Keywords: yellow rust; wheat; cluster

Keywords


Original Research

 

                 Research on Crop Ecophysiology                                   Vol.13/1, Issue 1 (2018), Pages: 7 - 15

 

 

 

 


The Effect of the Yellow Rust Caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks. (PST) on the Characteristics of the Cluster and Yield of Wheat Cultivars

Kaveh, Limouchi*

Ph.D Agronomy. Young Researchers and Elite Club, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran.

 

* Corresponding author email: kavehlimouchi@yahoo.com

 

Received: 8 Sebtember 2017                                           Accepted: 18 January 2018

 

 

Abstracts

The present study was carried out in order to investigate the rate of negative effect of wheat yellow rust pathogens on characteristics related to the cluster and yield of wheat cultivars in climatic conditions of north of Khuzestan. The study was carried out using a split plot design in randomized complete blocks with three replications. In this design, the conditions of presence and absence of wheat yellow rust were considered as the main factors, and the most important cultivars planted in the region including Dez and Chamran were considered as the secondary factors. The results of variance analysis indicated that both group of factors had a significant effect on all characteristics except for the cluster length on which yellow rust had no significant effect due to its reliance on genotype. It was also concluded that the mutual effect was only significant on the grain yield at a level of 5%. Chamran and Dez cultivars with average of 503.33 and 4808.33 kg/hectare had the highest and the lowest yield, respectively. Yellow rust disease had a severely negative effect on all characteristics except for the cluster length, which finally led to a decrease of 53.92% in the yield compared to appropriate conditions. Given the moisture rate of the weather as the most important factor for the disease spread, it is hoped that the losses caused by yellow rust can be prevented by utilizing suitable managerial methods and most importantly irrigation schedule program and applying appropriate pesticides, which the results indicated that can be justified in regard to economy.

Keywords: yellow rust; wheat; cluster

 

 


Introduction

     Yellow rust disease which is caused by fungus Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks. (PST) is an important wheat disease in Iran which exists in all regions especially in cold and humid areas and attacks wheat fields and causes a severe reduction in crop particularly when it becomes an epidemic. During 1993-1994, yellow rust epidemic caused a loss of 30% in wheat crop and destroyed about 1.5 million tons wheat (Torabi et al., 1995). Yellow rust disease is an important wheat disease that is prevalent in cold and temperate weather. Over the last decade, several epidemics of yellow rust have happened in many countries of the world especially in central parts and the west of Asia and the north of Africa. The first report is related to yellow rust disease in Iran in 1947 (Esfandiari, 1947). Cummins (1971) considered a comprehensive concept for p.strriiformis species and introduced species of 24 types from different poaceae as the host for this species. Hassebrauk (1965) studied the etymology of this type of fungus causing yellow rust and introduced a Eurasian origin for it and believed that it was first prevalent among uncultivated poaceae and then infected crop species after they emerged. According to Agrios (2004), temperate weather and a relatively high level of humidity can create grounds for development of wheat yellow rust, and emergence of new species reduces the general resistance among such species. In 1997, Grain and Plant Research, Improvement, and Provision Institute introduced Chamran cultivar which was resistant to yellow rust by 2003, which was attributed to the presence of seedling resistance gene Yr27 in it (Afshari et al., 2003). In evaluating the resistance of 100 advanced lines dry land wheat to yellow rust in Miyandoab, Pouralibaba et al (2002) reported that 62% of them were fragile at seedling stage while resistant at complete plant stage, 29% were resistant at both stage, 6% were fragile at both stages, and 3% were resistant at seedling stage while fragile at complete plant stage. According to the reports on the resistance of common wheat cultivars to yellow rust in the study carried out by Keshavarz and Torabi (1998), the first infection happened on March 28, 1996 in Dogonbadan region on Azadi cultivar and on May 2, 1996 in Boyer Ahmad area on the same cultivar in the form of 5S. It was also reported that Zagros cultivar was safe, Bayat semi-resistant, Maron, Sefid Sardari and Omid were semi-fragile, and Azadi was fragile. They reported the losses caused by the disease as 4.5% reduction in the crop. In 2002, yellow rust happened early in Washington State early due to appropriate weather conditions, and it was not controlled through chemical control, which resulted in a reduction of 20-25% in the crop. In 2003, the resistance of the wheat cultivars decreased in the U.S., and due to emergence of new species of this pathogen, a reduction of 25% in crop was reported (Chen, 2005).

     The present study was carried out in order to investigate the rate of negative effect of delayed planting of wheat cultivars in fields afflicted by wheat yellow rust fungal disease in order to come up with a correct evaluation of the rate of losses caused by delayed cultivation of such fields.

Materials and methods

     The present experiment was carried out in the crop year of 2010-2011 in the circumstance of Khuzestan Province, Iran with a longitude of 48:28˝, a latitude of 31:50˝, and a height above sea level of 33 meters, with loamy soil with pH=7.2. In so doing, the design was carried out in Shavur Field using a split plot design in randomized complete blocks with three replications, the dimension of the plots was 8.5×10 m, the distance between the main plots was 10 m, the distance between the replications was 20 m, and the irrigation and drainage systems were separate. Some of the climatic parameters are presented in Table 1, below.

     The main factor was planting date (first planting: November 8th, delayed planting: December 8th) with grain consumption of 250 kg per hectare and the secondary factors were Dez and Chamran cultivars.

     In this experiment, the field was first irrigated, and after the soil moisture reached a favorable level (16-18% based on dry weight) and it was prepared for planting, the early plowing was carried out conventionally using moldboard plow up to a depth of 25-30 cm in all treatments, and the soil was given 11 kg ammonium phosphate per hectare and 50 kg urea nitrogen per hectare according to the results of the test. All farming operations (except for experiment treatments) like giving fertilizers and pesticides were uniformly carried out for all plots. In regard with previous cultivation, the field was planted with vegetables (allium ampeloprasum) and was fallow for a month before cultivation, so after it was plowed, the remnants from harvesting were buried in and mixed with the soil. During the growing season, particularly early stages of growth, weed control was carried out using pesticides like Topic with a rate of 1 liter per hectare and Granstar with a rate of 25 gr per hectare. In order to prevent the excessive development of the fungus causing yellow rust disease, the poaceae weeds as the host for the disease around the field were removed. Moreover, Tilt and Folicur pesticides were used especially at the stage when the cluster swells enough depending on the percentage of the disease (in order to prevent the excessive growth) in order to control the disease.

     Parameters such as yield and 1000-grain weigh, grain per panicle, deaf grains per panicle, and panicle length were analyzed using SAS Software. Comparison of means was carried out through Duncan test at a level of 5%.

 

 

 

Table 1. The average air temperature and rainfall during rice growth

Factor

Nov.-Dec.

Dec.-Jan.

Jan.-Feb.

Feb-Mar.

Mar.-Apr.

Apr.-May

May-June

June-July

Average air temperature

16.9

13.6

13.5

18.4

24.5

31.1

36.6

38

Rainfall

8.4

13.4

85.8

13.7

4.3

9.2

0

0

 

 


Results and discussion

     Grain yield: Based on the results of variance analysis of grain yield, there was a significant difference between different planting dates (1%), there was also a significant difference between the mutual effects of the two factors (5%) (Table 2). According to the table of comparing the average grain yield, it can be observed that grain yield decreased by 23.87% as a result of delayed planting. Delay in planting increased the pollution rate of the field because the plant faced rainfall early in regard to its growth period, which in turn enhanced the weather moisture (an effective factor in development of the disease) and as a result the disease developed faster and further which caused more damage to the plant. This damage, i.e. spread of wheat yellow rust disease, as statistical measurements have indicated, are 25% more than when the plant is cultivated on time. In other words, thermal stresses caused by delayed planting conditions can be one of the causes for the decrease observed in past yields (Table 3). In total, the highest yield was related to Chamran cultivar on November 22nd with an average of 3733.3 kg per hectare and the lowest yield was related to Dez cultivar with on December 22nd with an average of 1633.3 kg per hectare (See Table 4). These findings are completely in line with those of the study carried out by Agrios (2004) who concluded that disease pathogen increased as a result of increased humidity and rainfall. They are also in agreement with the results of the study conducted by Pouralibaba et al (2002) who showed that there was an increase in damages caused by wheat yellow rust at early stages compared to what was observed in delayed planting. The results of the present study are also in line with those reported by Afshari et al (2003) who referred to higher resistance of Chamran cultivar and with those of the study carried out by Mansouri and Rejaeei (2006) who stated that resistance of resistant cultivars like Chamran will decline with time. Torabi et al (1995) and Chen (2005) respectively referred to decreases of 30% and 25% in product of cultivars that are resistant to yellow rust. They also stated that such resistance will disappear over time, which is in line with the results of the present study.

     The weight of 1000 grains: This quality is also influenced by yellow rust disease, and the studied cultivar were significantly different at levels of 1% and 5%, respectively. However, the mutual effects of the two factors were not statistically different, which indicates that different cultivars are affected by the disease to a certain degree (Table 2). According to the results of comparing the means of yellow rust, this disease caused a reduction of 7 grams per 1000 grains. However, since weight drop did not lead to an increase in the number of grains in cluster and due to the negative correlation between these two, it can be stated that a decrease in the weight of 1000 grains led to a decrease in quality and quantity of the yield. Among the cultivars, Chamran cultivar with an average weight of 28.50 gr and Dez with an average weight of 25.16 gr had the highest and lowest weights, respectively (Table 3). These findings are in agreement with those reported by Afshari et al (2003) who concluded that this cultivar is less affected by yellow rust disease.

     Grain in cluster: This quality is one of the most effective characteristics in enhancing the grain yield. Even though it causes a reduction in the weight of 1000 grains, it enhances the total yield. The results of variance analysis indicated that this quality was significantly different between the two cultivars with yellow rust at levels of 1 and 5% while the mutual effects of the two factors were not significantly different (Table 2). The results of comparing the means indicated a decrease of about 52% in the number of grains in cluster as a result of the disease, which can be among the most important reasons for decreased yield of the plant. Among the cultivars, Dez and Chamran respectively with an average of 20.16 and 16.16 grains in cluster had the highest and the lowest number of grains (Table 3). These results are in line with those reported by Torabi et al (1995) and Chen (2005).

     Empty grains in cluster: The number of empty grains in clusters indicates the real ratio of the plant’s potential to enhance the number of grains and ultimately the total yield. As the observations resulting from variance analysis suggest, there was a significant difference among different levels of yellow rust and the cultivars at a level of 1%; however, the difference between the mutual effects of the two factors was not significant (Table 2). According to the comparison carried out between the means, there were 2.33 empty grains per cluster in favorable conditions free from disease while there were 11 cases in the presence of the disease pathogen, in other words, the plant’s potential decreases approximately by 7 grains. Among the cultivars, Dez with an average of 7.83 empty grains and Chamran with 5.50 ones had respectively the most and the fewest number of empty grains in clusters, which can be contributed to respectively to their lower and higher resistance to wheat yellow rust (Table 3).

     Cluster length: It is one of the characteristics that is related to the genotype of the cultivars and is less affected by external conditions. The results of variance analysis also proved this fact. As indicated in Table 3, there was no significant difference between the effects of factors causing yellow rust and the mutual effect of the cultivar in terms of the cluster length while there was a significant

 

 

 

Cluster length

Empty grains in cluster

Grain in cluster

weight of 1000 grains

Grain yield

df

S.O.V

0.03ns

4.33ns

2.33ns

2.08ns

28158.33ns

2

Repeat

0.05ns

225.33**

432.00**

161.33**

18575408.33**

1

stripe rust

0.04

2.33

1.00

1.58

4658.33

2

Error (a)

4.32**

16.33**

48.00*

33.33*

5109075.00**

1

cultivar

0.08ns

3.00ns

3.00ns

0.33ns

343408.33*

1

stripe rust ×cultivar

0.05

0.66

3.500

2.33

17241.66

4

Error (b)

3.73

12.24

10.29

5.69

3.16

 

CV(%)

Table2. Analysis for variance of panicle and grain yield in wheat Cultivars

Ns, * and **: Nonsignificant and significant at 5 and 1% level of probability, respectively.


 

Table 3. Mean comparion of panicle and grain yield in wheat Cultivars

Acting

Grain yield

(kg)

weight of 1000 grains

Grain in cluster

(number)

Empty grains in cluster

(number)

Cluster length

 (cm)

Date of planting

stripe rust

2911.67 b

23.16 b

12.16 b

11.00 a

6.15 a

Desirability

5400.00 a

30.50 a

24.16 a

2.33 b

6.01 a

Cultivars

Dose

3503.33 b

25.16 b

20.16 a

7.83 a

6.68 a

Chamran

4808.33 a

28.50 a

16.16 b

5.50 b

5.48 b

Means in each column, followed by at least one similar letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% probability level using Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

Table 4. comparison of grain yield  in experimental treatments

Acting

Grain yield

(kg)

stripe rust

Dose

2090.00 d

Chamran

3733.33 c

Desirability

Dose

4916.67 b

Chamran

5883.33 a

Means in each column, followed by at least one similar letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% probability level using Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

 

difference between different levels of cultivars at a level of 1% (See Table 2). According to the comparisons carried out between the means, it can be observed that yellow rust pathogen had no significant effect on the cluster length; however, among the cultivars, Dez and Chamran with respectively average cluster length of 6.68 and 5.48 cm were the longest and shortest lengths, which was attributed to the cultivars’ genotype (See Table 3).


 

 

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