Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Composition of Essential Oil of Three Salvia Species

Authors

1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Iran

10.30486/roce.2019.672132

Abstract

 
Farahnaz Farajzadeh1, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh*2, Naser Sabaghnia3
 
1-Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2- Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
3- Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Iran
 
*Corresponding address Email: h.asadi@khuisf.ac.ir
Received: 25 July 2018                                              Accepted: 10 March 2019                                
Abstract
Different species of Salvia are the most important medicinal plants. In this research essential oil composition of three Salvia species cultivated in climate condition in Marand region were investigated. The plants were harvested in flowering stage and after drying in room temperature, the essential oils of them were extracted with hydro-distillation technique and chemical compositions were analysed by a gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest and lowest amounts of essential oil yield were measured in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata, respectively. A total of 31 different components were identified accounting by 89.51%, 92.62% and 87.40% of the oils of Salvia officinalis, Salvia nemorosa and Salvia virgata, respectively. The main components were found in Salvia officinalis were α-thujone (37.35%), followed by camphor (18.59%), 1, 8-cineol (8.26%), β-thujone (5.53%), e-caryophyllene (4.15%), and α-humulene (3.50%). The oil of Salvia virgata contained, as main components, E-caryophyllene (37.51%), E- β-farnesene (15.26%), Caryophyllene oxide (8.57%) and camphor (5.16%). Major compounds in the volatile of Salvia nemorosa were e-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and caryophylla-β-ol with 42.54, 23.94, 7.44 and 6.61%, respectively. Results indicated variation in the essential oil percent and composition among studied salvia species.
 
Keywords:Essential oil, Salvia officinalis, Salvia nemorosa, Salvia virgata.
 
 

Keywords


Original Research

                 Research on Crop Ecophysiology                                   Vol.14/1, Issue 1 (2019), Pages: 1 - 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Composition of Essential Oil of Three Salvia Species

 

Farahnaz Farajzadeh1, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh*2, Naser Sabaghnia3

 

1-Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2- Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

3- Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Iran

 

*Corresponding address Email: h.asadi@khuisf.ac.ir

Received: 25 July 2018                                              Accepted: 10 January 2019                                

     

Abstract

Different species of Salvia are the most important medicinal plants. In this research essential oil composition of three Salvia species cultivated in climate condition in Marand region were investigated. The plants were harvested in flowering stage and after drying in room temperature, the essential oils of them were extracted with hydro-distillation technique and chemical compositions were analysed by a gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest and lowest amounts of essential oil yield were measured in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata, respectively. A total of 31 different components were identified accounting by 89.51%, 92.62% and 87.40% of the oils of Salvia officinalis, Salvia nemorosa and Salvia virgata, respectively. The main components were found in Salvia officinalis were α-thujone (37.35%), followed by camphor (18.59%), 1, 8-cineol (8.26%), β-thujone (5.53%), e-caryophyllene (4.15%), and α-humulene (3.50%). The oil of Salvia virgata contained, as main components, E-caryophyllene (37.51%), E- β-farnesene (15.26%), Caryophyllene oxide (8.57%) and camphor (5.16%). Major compounds in the volatile of Salvia nemorosa were e-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and caryophylla-β-ol with 42.54, 23.94, 7.44 and 6.61%, respectively. Results indicated variation in the essential oil percent and composition among studied salvia species.

 

Keywords:Essential oil, Salvia officinalis, Salvia nemorosa, Salvia virgata.

 

 

Introduction

The use of medicinal plants for diseases treatment purposes has been prevalent for centuries and is the basis of traditional Iranian medicine. Nowadays, due to the side effects of chemical drugs, use of medicinal plants is increasing (Mohammadi and Asadi-Gharneh, 2018). Iran, with 11 different climates and about 8000 valuable plant species, is a unique country in terms of plant materials and biodiversity (Omidbaigi, 2005).

The Lamiaceae family is one of the largest plant families widespread around the world. The Salvia genus, with about 1,000 species, constitutes the largest genus of this family, often highly aromatic and mainly distributed in Central and South America, West and East Asia. In different regions of Iran, 58 species of this genus have been found, which 17 species are endemic (Rechinger, 1992). The name of Salvia originates from the Latin word "Salvare", meaning healer, and in many pharmacopoeias, it is referred to as a medicinal plant (Omidbaigi, 2005; Blumenthal et al., 2000).

The essential oils of different species of Salvia are used in various pharmaceutical, food industries, cosmetics and medicinal plants (Ebadi, 2002; Kamatou et al., 2008). Different species of Salvia have antibacterial, anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Carta et al., 1996) and used in traditional medicine for the treatment of colds, bronchitis, gastrointestinal disorders and tuberculosis (Russo et al., 2013).

Secondary metabolites are the most important structure in medicinal plants that were produced by the plants under influence of various environmental condition and genetics. In terms of environmental factors, geographical distribution; climate and soil composition play an important role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants (Omidbaigi, 2005; Aboukhalid et al., 2017).

The available literature reports numerous studies on the essential oils from Salvia species. Study of the essential oil composition of Salvia virgate in Tabriz weather condition showed that this specie contains fifteen different compounds and β-caryophyllene, germacrene-B, β-caryophyllene epoxide and spathulenol were the major constituents (Sefidkon and Mirza, 1999).

In a study, Kazemzadeh et al (2010) identified thirty four different compounds in the essential oil of Salvia officinalis and reported β-caryophyllene and 1, 8-cineol as the major constituents of this specie. Analysis of essential oil composition of Salvia virgata growing in central parts of Iran reported by Alizadeh (2013) revealed that this specie is rich in different composition of β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene, 1-octen -3-ol, terpinene-4-ol and alpha-thujene.

Golparvar and Hadipanah (2013) reported the major components of Salvia officinalis specie cultivated in Isfahan (Iran) were camphor, thujone and 1, 8-cineole. In another study, chemical composition of two species of Salvia, namely Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata collected from Estahban region (in Fars province) were evaluated. Based on the results of their study, 42 and 29 compounds were identified in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata, respectively (Golparvar et al., 2017).

Saadatjoo et al (2018) evaluated diversity and composition of essential oils in some species of Salvia, collected from their natural habitats in Southwestern Iran, and reported considerable variation in essential oil content and composition within among studied Salvia species.

Since some of the chemical compositions that are produced by various environmental factors in plants are economically important and valuable as a main product of metabolism activities, the impact of environmental factors on the quantity and quality of these compounds should always be investigated.

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate cultivation site effects on yield and essential oil compositions of three Salvia species cultivated in climatic conditions of Marand, Iran.

 

Materials and Methods

 

This research was carried out in 2018 in a privative field in Marand (38° 26' N latitude, 45° 46' E longitude, and 1334 m above sea level), Iran. Also, average of annual temperature, annual humidity, annual rainfall and wind speed of studied region are 14.3 C°, 37 %, 293 mm and 34 km/h, respectively. Seeds of salvia species including S. officinalis, S. nemorosa and S. virgata were purchased from Pakan-bazr Company, Iran.

For sowing the seeds, the soil was plowed and leveled. The area for each plot was 12 m2. Seeds were sown at depth of 3-4 cm and irrigated immediately after seed sowing. After plants established, at 2-4 true leaves stage the plants were thinning to achieve ideal plant density. The plants were spaced 50 cm and 40 cm between and along the rows, respectively (Omidbaigi, 2005).

During the growth period all common agricultural practices were done for plants of three Salvia species. For measurement of physical and chemical properties of soil, the sample was taken in 0-30 cm depth of soil in the field and soil analysis was done according to standard methods and results are reported in Table 1.

 

Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of soil in studied region

K (mg/kg)

P (mg/kg)

N (%)

O.C (%)

pH

EC (dS/m)

Soil texture

880

103

0.08

1.80

7.83

0.75

Clay loam

 

The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with 3 replications. The essential oil replications of each species were mixed together and a single sample for each species was submitted to identify chemical compounds (Moshrefi-Araghi et al., 2019).

 

Extraction and Identification of the Essential oil

For analysis of essential oils, the aerial parts of plants were harvested at flowering stage and were dried at room temperatures (25 ± 5 °C) and shade condition. Dried plant materials (100 g) were powder and the essential oil extraction was done by hydro-distillation technique for 3 hours using a Clevenger-type apparatus according to the method recommended in British Pharmacopoeia. The extracted essential oil was dehydrated with Na2SO4 and stored in sealed glass vials in the dark and 4 °C until analysis.

Analysis of essential oils was carried out in Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran. The oils extracted from salvia species were analyzed using a Shimadzu- 9A Gas Chromatograph (GC). The detector was Flame Ionization Detector (FID) with 280° C temperature. The separation was achieved by capillary column, DB-5 (30 m × 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 μm). The column temperature was kept at 40 °C for 5 min and programmed to 250 °C at rate of 3°C/min. Helium was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The temperature of the injection port was 260 °C.

The Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) was carried out on Varin-3400 GC coupled with Saturn II fused capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm with film thickness 0.25 μm). The operating conditions programmed to 240 °C at rate of 3°C/min. The injector temperature was kept 250 °C.

Identification of the essential oils components was accomplished based on comparison of retention times with those of authentic standard and by comparison of their mass spectral fragmentation pattern (Willy and NIST Chen/Station data system and Adams (Adams, 2001).

 

Results and Discussion

 

The analyses of essential oil revealed that different species of Salvia that cultivation in same region, display differences for their essential oil percentage and composition (Figure 1 and Table 2).

The essential oil yield in studied salvia species are shown in Figure 1. The percentage of essential oil was differing from 0.037 to 1.1 percent. The highest and the lowest values were measured in S. officinalis and S. virgata, respectively. In a previous report on Salvia virgata L. and Salvia officinalis L. from Estahban region (Fars province) in South of Iran, the essential oil yield was 1.1 and 2.4%, respectively. In another study, the essential oil yield of Salvia virgata L. genotypes were collected from natural habitats in Southwest of Iran reported between 0.03% and 0.04% (Saadatjoo et al., 2018). The sage (Salvia officinalis L.) oil yield of the fresh herb was 0.55 % and the oil yield of hydrosol (aromatic water) was 0.17 %, according to Baydar et al (2013) from the Isparta, Turkey.

 

 

 

Figure 1. The essential oil yield of the studied Salvia species

 

The results of chemical analysis in essential oil of different salvia species by GC/MS including of components of essence, percentage and retention index are shown in Table 2. In Salvia officinalis seventeen different compound identified which represented 89.51% of total essential oil. The percentage of compound was varied from 0.18 to 37.35 percent.  In this specie the highest compound were α-thujone (37.35%), followed by camphor (18.59%), 1, 8-cineol (8.26%), β-thujone (5.53%), e-caryophyllene (4.15%), and α-humulene (3.50%). Also the lowest compound belongs to cis-sabinene hydrate (0.18%) and linalool (0.30%).

Essential oil analysis in S. nemorosa showed different composition of secondary metabolites which represented 92.62% of the total essential oil. The chemical values differ from 0.23 to 42.54%. According to obtain results, the main constituents detected in Salvia nemorosa were e-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and caryophylla-β-ol with 42.54, 23.94, 7.44 and 6.61%, respectively. On the other hand, the minimum values of components were observed in terpinene-4-ol (0.23%) and linalool (0.24%) (Table 2).

The analysis of essential oil in Salvia virgta identified compounds represented 87.40% of total oil and varied from 0.38 to 37.51 percent of essential oil and e-caryophyllene (37.51%), e- β-farnesene (15.26%), caryophyllene oxide (8.57%) and camphor (5.16%) were found in abundance. Also the lowest values of components are delta cadinene (0.38%), α-copaene (0.45%) and sabinene (0.48%).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2. Chemical composition of the essential oils of three species of Salvia (S. officinalis, S. nemorosa and S. virgata) cultivated in Marand region

S. virgata (%)

S. nemorosa (%)

S. officinalis (%)

RI

Compounds

No

1.18

---

2.40

947

α-pinene

1

---

---

2.58

964

Camphene

2

---

---

1.12

980

β-pinene

3

---

---

1.63

1010

Myrcene

4

0.48

---

---

1012

Sabinene

5

---

---

1.50

1058

Limonene

6

---

---

8.26

1067

1,8- Cineol

7

---

---

0.41

1084

γ-terpinene

8

---

0.33

0.18

1102

Cis sabinene hydrate

9

---

---

0.35

1111

P menthe 2,4(8) diene

10

---

0.24

0.30

1117

Linalool

11

2.15

0.91

37.35

1143

α-thujone

12

0.85

0.47

5.53

1149

β-thujone

13

5.16

1.53

18.59

1205

Camphor

14

---

---

0.82

1225

Brneol

15

---

1.24

---

1227

α-campholenal

16

1.89

0.23

0.84

1322

Terpinene-4-ol

17

3.20

1.73

---

1471

Thymol

18

0.45

---

---

1474

α-copaene

19

37.51

42.54

4.15

1479

e-caryophyllene

20

2.06

1.88

3.50

1517

α-humulene

21

15.26

0.93

---

1538

e- β-farnesene

22

1.13

---

---

1541

γ-cadinene

23

2.04

0.53

---

1557

Germacrene-D

24

0.38

---

---

1637

Delta cadinene

25

---

7.44

---

1657

Spathulenol

26

8.57

23.94

---

1667

Caryophyllene oxide

27

2.58

---

---

1696

(epi-α) bisabolol

28

2.51

1.47

---

1910

Humulene epoxide

29

---

0.60

---

1942

Caryophylla-4(14),b(15)-dien-5-α-ol

30

---

6.61

---

1981

Caryophylla-4(14),b(15)-dien-5-β-ol

31

87.40

92.62

89.51

---

Total

 

 

In overall, there were thirty one different components were identified in essential oils of studied Salvia species. In our study β-thujone (5.53%), caryophylla_4(14),b(15)_dien_5_β_ol (6.61%), spathulenol (7.44%), 1,8- cineol (8.26%), e-β-farnesene (15.2%), camphor (18.59%), caryophyllene oxide (23.94%), α-thujone (37.35%) and e-caryophyllene (42.54%) were found in the highest values. Also, our results indicated that, six compounds namely; α-thujone, β-thujone, camphor, terpinene-4-ol, e-caryophyllene and α-humulene are common compositions in three studied Salvia species. On the other hands, in Salvia officinalis, Salvia nemorosa and Salvia virgata, 8, 4 and 5 particular compound was observed (Table 2).

Baydar et al (2013) indicated that 1, 8-cineole, cis thujone, trans-thujone and camphor were the main components in Salvia officinalis essential oil, while in our study 1, 8-cineole, α-thujone and camphor were the abundant compounds. The amounts of 1, 8-cineole in our study was lower than measured by Bernotiene et al (2007) from plants collected from 8 gardens in Eastern Lithuanian. The amounts of alpha pinene, camphene, limonene, 1, 8-cineole, linalool, camphor and alpha humulene in our study, were highly supported with the ISO 9909, as an standard for medicinal uses of essential oil of Salvia officinalis. According to our results, while α-thujone was very similar to amount of reported by Golparvar et al (2017), the values of 1, 8-cineole, β-thujone and camphene had lower similarity. The essential oil of Salvia officinalis due to existence of 1,8- Cineol (8.26%) component, has antibacterial properties (Sefidkon and Mirza, 1999).

The major essential oil component of Salvia nemorosa from 21 different components were β-ocimene, β-caryophyllene and α- thujone (Mirza and Sefidkon, 1999).

In this study, e-caryophyllene, e-β–farnesene and caryophyllene oxide were identified as the major essential oil components in virgata specie, which amount of e-caryophyllene and e-β–farnesene were higher than what reported by Saadatjoo et al (2018), except for caryophyllene oxide which is lower. Compared with the results of our investigation, Golparvar et al (2017) demonstrated the higher levels of caryophyllene oxide and sabinene compounds. The main identified component from Salvia virgata in another study was β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide (Sefidkon and Mirza, 1999). As a result of possessing valuable components such as 1, 8-cineole, thujone and camphor, the essential oil of Salvia species revealed antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties (Carta et al., 1996).

Although the amounts of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants are controlled by genes, accumulation and concentration of them are drastically influenced by environmental conditions. (Gurr, 1980). In fact, quantity and quality of essential oil composition in aromatic plants can be influenced by variety and ontogenic stage (Marotti and Piccaglica, 1994), as well as environmental factors including; temperature, light intensity, altitude, water availability, plant nutrition, soil type and preparation process (Rostaefar et al., 2018; Sajed et al., 2013; Gezeka et al., 2019). On the other hand; accessibility of different biochemical compounds are correlated with temperature and altitude of production site (Omidbaigi, 2005).

 

Conclusion

 

In this study, the quantity and quality of essential oil components of three Salvia species were evaluated. Results indicated variation in the essential oil yield and composition in studied Salvia species. To sum up, each Salvia species possesses different composition of essential oil that can be used for different purposes such as drug and food industries. Also according to our study, this region has appropriate condition for production of Salvia species, due to production of different valuable component in suitable amounts with compare to production of them in other regions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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